Source code for holoviews.plotting.renderer

Public API for all plotting renderers supported by HoloViews,
regardless of plotting package or backend.
import base64
import os
from contextlib import contextmanager
from functools import partial
from io import BytesIO, StringIO

import panel as pn
import param
from bokeh.document import Document
from bokeh.embed import file_html
from import curdoc
from bokeh.resources import CDN, INLINE
from packaging.version import Version
from panel import config
from import ipywidget, load_notebook, render_mimebundle, render_model
from import state
from panel.models.comm_manager import CommManager as PnCommManager
from panel.pane import HoloViews as HoloViewsPane
from panel.viewable import Viewable
from panel.widgets.player import PlayerBase
from pyviz_comms import CommManager

    # Added in Panel 1.0 to support JS -> Python binary comms
    from import JupyterCommManagerBinary as JupyterCommManager
except ImportError:
    from pyviz_comms import JupyterCommManager

from param.parameterized import bothmethod

from ..core import AdjointLayout, DynamicMap, HoloMap, Layout
from import disable_pipeline
from import Exporter
from ..core.options import Compositor, SkipRendering, Store, StoreOptions
from ..core.util import unbound_dimensions
from ..streams import Stream
from . import Plot
from .util import collate, displayable, initialize_dynamic

panel_version = Version(pn.__version__)

# Tags used when visual output is to be embedded in HTML
IMAGE_TAG = "<img src='{src}' style='max-width:100%; margin: auto; display: block; {css}'/>"
<video controls style='max-width:100%; margin: auto; display: block; {css}'>
<source src='{src}' type='{mime_type}'>
Your browser does not support the video tag.
PDF_TAG = "<iframe src='{src}' style='width:100%; margin: auto; display: block; {css}'></iframe>"
HTML_TAG = "{src}"
INVALID_TAG = "<div>Cannot render {mime_type} in HTML</div>"

    'base64': 'data:{mime_type};base64,{b64}', # Use to embed data
    'svg':  IMAGE_TAG,
    'png':  IMAGE_TAG,
    'gif':  IMAGE_TAG,
    'webm': VIDEO_TAG,
    'mp4':  VIDEO_TAG,
    'pdf':  PDF_TAG,
    'html': HTML_TAG,
    'pgf':  INVALID_TAG

    'svg':  'image/svg+xml',
    'png':  'image/png',
    'gif':  'image/gif',
    'webm': 'video/webm',
    'mp4':  'video/mp4',
    'pdf':  'application/pdf',
    'pgf':  'text/pgf',
    'html': 'text/html',
    'json': 'text/json',
    'js':   'application/javascript',
    'jlab-hv-exec': 'application/vnd.holoviews_exec.v0+json',
    'jlab-hv-load': 'application/vnd.holoviews_load.v0+json',
    'server': None

static_template = """

[docs]class Renderer(Exporter): """ The job of a Renderer is to turn the plotting state held within Plot classes into concrete, visual output in the form of the PNG, SVG, MP4 or WebM formats (among others). Note that a Renderer is a type of Exporter and must therefore follow the Exporter interface. The Renderer needs to be able to use the .state property of the appropriate Plot classes associated with that renderer in order to generate output. The process of 'drawing' is execute by the Plots and the Renderer turns the final plotting state into output. """ center = param.Boolean(default=True, doc=""" Whether to center the plot""") backend = param.String(doc=""" The full, lowercase name of the rendering backend or third part plotting package used e.g. 'matplotlib' or 'cairo'.""") dpi = param.Integer(default=None, doc=""" The render resolution in dpi (dots per inch)""") fig = param.ObjectSelector(default='auto', objects=['auto'], doc=""" Output render format for static figures. If None, no figure rendering will occur. """) fps = param.Number(default=20, doc=""" Rendered fps (frames per second) for animated formats.""") holomap = param.ObjectSelector(default='auto', objects=['scrubber','widgets', None, 'auto'], doc=""" Output render multi-frame (typically animated) format. If None, no multi-frame rendering will occur.""") mode = param.ObjectSelector(default='default', objects=['default', 'server'], doc=""" Whether to render the object in regular or server mode. In server mode a bokeh Document will be returned which can be served as a bokeh server app. By default renders all output is rendered to HTML.""") size = param.Integer(default=100, doc=""" The rendered size as a percentage size""") widget_location = param.ObjectSelector(default=None, allow_None=True, objects=[ 'left', 'bottom', 'right', 'top', 'top_left', 'top_right', 'bottom_left', 'bottom_right', 'left_top', 'left_bottom', 'right_top', 'right_bottom'], doc=""" The position of the widgets relative to the plot.""") widget_mode = param.ObjectSelector(default='embed', objects=['embed', 'live'], doc=""" The widget mode determining whether frames are embedded or generated 'live' when interacting with the widget.""") css = param.Dict(default={}, doc=""" Dictionary of CSS attributes and values to apply to HTML output.""") info_fn = param.Callable(default=None, allow_None=True, constant=True, doc=""" Renderers do not support the saving of object info metadata""") key_fn = param.Callable(default=None, allow_None=True, constant=True, doc=""" Renderers do not support the saving of object key metadata""") post_render_hooks = param.Dict(default={'svg':[], 'png':[]}, doc=""" Optional dictionary of hooks that are applied to the rendered data (according to the output format) before it is returned. Each hook is passed the rendered data and the object that is being rendered. These hooks allow post-processing of rendered data before output is saved to file or displayed.""") # Defines the valid output formats for each mode. mode_formats = {'fig': [None, 'auto'], 'holomap': [None, 'auto']} # The comm_manager handles the creation and registering of client, # and server side comms comm_manager = CommManager # Define appropriate widget classes widgets = ['scrubber', 'widgets'] # Whether in a notebook context, set when running Renderer.load_nb notebook_context = False # Plot registry _plots = {} # Whether to render plots with Panel _render_with_panel = False def __init__(self, **params): self.last_plot = None super().__init__(**params) def __call__(self, obj, fmt='auto', **kwargs): plot, fmt = self._validate(obj, fmt) info = {'file-ext': fmt, 'mime_type': MIME_TYPES[fmt]} if plot is None: return None, info elif self.mode == 'server': return self.server_doc(plot, doc=kwargs.get('doc')), info elif isinstance(plot, Viewable): return self.static_html(plot), info else: data = self._figure_data(plot, fmt, **kwargs) data = self._apply_post_render_hooks(data, obj, fmt) return data, info
[docs] @bothmethod def get_plot(self_or_cls, obj, doc=None, renderer=None, comm=None, **kwargs): """ Given a HoloViews Viewable return a corresponding plot instance. """ if isinstance(obj, DynamicMap) and obj.unbounded: dims = ', '.join(f'{dim!r}' for dim in obj.unbounded) msg = ('DynamicMap cannot be displayed without explicit indexing ' 'as {dims} dimension(s) are unbounded. ' '\nSet dimensions bounds with the DynamicMap redim.range ' 'or redim.values methods.') raise SkipRendering(msg.format(dims=dims)) # Initialize DynamicMaps with first data item initialize_dynamic(obj) if not renderer: renderer = self_or_cls if not isinstance(self_or_cls, Renderer): renderer = self_or_cls.instance() if not isinstance(obj, Plot): if not displayable(obj): obj = collate(obj) initialize_dynamic(obj) with disable_pipeline(): obj =, mode='data', backend=self_or_cls.backend) plot_opts = dict(self_or_cls.plot_options(obj, self_or_cls.size), **kwargs) if isinstance(obj, AdjointLayout): obj = Layout(obj) plot = self_or_cls.plotting_class(obj)(obj, renderer=renderer, **plot_opts) defaults = [kd.default for kd in plot.dimensions] init_key = tuple(v if d is None else d for v, d in zip(plot.keys[0], defaults)) plot.update(init_key) else: plot = obj # Trigger streams which were marked as requiring an update triggers = [] for p in plot.traverse(): if not hasattr(p, '_trigger'): continue for trigger in p._trigger: if trigger not in triggers: triggers.append(trigger) p._trigger = [] for trigger in triggers: Stream.trigger([trigger]) if isinstance(self_or_cls, Renderer): self_or_cls.last_plot = plot if comm: plot.comm = comm if comm or self_or_cls.mode == 'server': if doc is None: doc = Document() if self_or_cls.notebook_context else curdoc() plot.document = doc return plot
[docs] @bothmethod def get_plot_state(self_or_cls, obj, renderer=None, **kwargs): """ Given a HoloViews Viewable return a corresponding plot state. """ if not isinstance(obj, Plot): obj = self_or_cls.get_plot(obj=obj, renderer=renderer, **kwargs) return obj.state
def _validate(self, obj, fmt, **kwargs): """ Helper method to be used in the __call__ method to get a suitable plot or widget object and the appropriate format. """ if isinstance(obj, Viewable): return obj, 'html' fig_formats = self.mode_formats['fig'] holomap_formats = self.mode_formats['holomap'] holomaps = obj.traverse(lambda x: x, [HoloMap]) dynamic = any(isinstance(m, DynamicMap) for m in holomaps) if fmt in ['auto', None]: if any(len(o) > 1 or (isinstance(o, DynamicMap) and unbound_dimensions( o.streams, o.kdims, no_duplicates=not o.positional_stream_args)) for o in holomaps): fmt = holomap_formats[0] if self.holomap in ['auto', None] else self.holomap else: fmt = fig_formats[0] if self.fig == 'auto' else self.fig if fmt in self.widgets: plot = self.get_widget(obj, fmt) fmt = 'html' elif dynamic or (self._render_with_panel and fmt == 'html'): plot = HoloViewsPane(obj,, backend=self.backend, renderer=self) else: plot = self.get_plot(obj, renderer=self, **kwargs) all_formats = set(fig_formats + holomap_formats) if fmt not in all_formats: raise Exception(f"Format {fmt!r} not supported by mode {self.mode!r}. Allowed formats: {fig_formats + holomap_formats!r}") self.last_plot = plot return plot, fmt def _apply_post_render_hooks(self, data, obj, fmt): """ Apply the post-render hooks to the data. """ hooks = self.post_render_hooks.get(fmt,[]) for hook in hooks: try: data = hook(data, obj) except Exception as e: self.param.warning(f"The post_render_hook {hook!r} could not " f"be applied:\n\n {e}") return data
[docs] def html(self, obj, fmt=None, css=None, resources='CDN', **kwargs): """ Renders plot or data structure and wraps the output in HTML. The comm argument defines whether the HTML output includes code to initialize a Comm, if the plot supplies one. """ plot, fmt = self._validate(obj, fmt) figdata, _ = self(plot, fmt, **kwargs) if isinstance(resources, str): resources = resources.lower() if css is None: css = self.css if isinstance(plot, Viewable): doc = Document() plot._render_model(doc) if resources == 'cdn': resources = CDN elif resources == 'inline': resources = INLINE return file_html(doc, resources) elif fmt in ['html', 'json']: return figdata elif fmt == 'svg': figdata = figdata.encode("utf-8") elif fmt == 'pdf' and 'height' not in css: _, h = self.get_size(plot) css['height'] = '%dpx' % (h*self.dpi*1.15) if isinstance(css, dict): css = '; '.join(f"{k}: {v}" for k, v in css.items()) else: raise ValueError("CSS must be supplied as Python dictionary") b64 = base64.b64encode(figdata).decode("utf-8") (mime_type, tag) = MIME_TYPES[fmt], HTML_TAGS[fmt] src = HTML_TAGS['base64'].format(mime_type=mime_type, b64=b64) html = tag.format(src=src, mime_type=mime_type, css=css) return html
[docs] def components(self, obj, fmt=None, comm=True, **kwargs): """ Returns data and metadata dictionaries containing HTML and JS components to include render in app, notebook, or standalone document. """ if isinstance(obj, Plot): plot = obj else: plot, fmt = self._validate(obj, fmt) if not isinstance(plot, Viewable): html = self._figure_data(plot, fmt, as_script=True, **kwargs) return {'text/html': html}, {MIME_TYPES['jlab-hv-exec']: {}} registry = list(Stream.registry.items()) objects = plot.object.traverse(lambda x: x) dynamic, streams = False, False for source in objects: dynamic |= isinstance(source, DynamicMap) streams |= any( src is source or (src._plot_id is not None and src._plot_id == source._plot_id) for src, streams in registry for s in streams ) embed = (not (dynamic or streams or self.widget_mode == 'live') or config.embed) if embed or config.comms == 'default': return self._render_panel(plot, embed, comm) return self._render_ipywidget(plot)
def _render_panel(self, plot, embed=False, comm=True): comm = self.comm_manager.get_server_comm() if comm else None doc = Document() with config.set(embed=embed): model = plot.layout._render_model(doc, comm) if embed: return render_model(model, comm) ref = model.ref['id'] manager = PnCommManager(, plot_id=ref) client_comm = self.comm_manager.get_client_comm( on_msg=partial(plot._on_msg, ref, manager), on_error=partial(plot._on_error, ref), on_stdout=partial(plot._on_stdout, ref), on_open=lambda _: comm.init() ) manager.client_comm_id = return render_mimebundle(model, doc, comm, manager) def _render_ipywidget(self, plot): # Handle rendering object as ipywidget widget = ipywidget(plot, combine_events=True) if hasattr(widget, '_repr_mimebundle_'): return widget._repr_mimebundle_(), {} plaintext = repr(widget) if len(plaintext) > 110: plaintext = plaintext[:110] + '…' data = {'text/plain': plaintext} if widget._view_name is not None: data['application/vnd.jupyter.widget-view+json'] = { 'version_major': 2, 'version_minor': 0, 'model_id': widget._model_id } if config.comms == 'vscode': # Unfortunately VSCode does not yet handle _repr_mimebundle_ from IPython.display import display display(data, raw=True) return {'text/html': '<div style="display: none"></div>'}, {} return data, {}
[docs] def static_html(self, obj, fmt=None, template=None): """ Generates a static HTML with the rendered object in the supplied format. Allows supplying a template formatting string with fields to interpolate 'js', 'css' and the main 'html'. """ html_bytes = StringIO(), html_bytes, fmt) return
@bothmethod def get_widget(self_or_cls, plot, widget_type, **kwargs): if widget_type == 'scrubber': widget_location = self_or_cls.widget_location or 'bottom' else: widget_type = 'individual' widget_location = self_or_cls.widget_location or 'right' layout = HoloViewsPane(plot, widget_type=widget_type,, widget_location=widget_location, renderer=self_or_cls) interval = int((1./self_or_cls.fps) * 1000) for player in player.interval = interval return layout
[docs] @bothmethod def export_widgets(self_or_cls, obj, filename, fmt=None, template=None, json=False, json_path='', **kwargs): """ Render and export object as a widget to a static HTML file. Allows supplying a custom template formatting string with fields to interpolate 'js', 'css' and the main 'html' containing the widget. Also provides options to export widget data to a json file in the supplied json_path (defaults to current path). """ if fmt not in self_or_cls.widgets+['auto', None]: raise ValueError("Renderer.export_widget may only export " "registered widget types.") self_or_cls.get_widget(obj, fmt).save(filename)
@bothmethod def _widget_kwargs(self_or_cls): if self_or_cls.holomap in ('auto', 'widgets'): widget_type = 'individual' loc = self_or_cls.widget_location or 'right' else: widget_type = 'scrubber' loc = self_or_cls.widget_location or 'bottom' return {'widget_location': loc, 'widget_type': widget_type, 'center': True}
[docs] @bothmethod def app(self_or_cls, plot, show=False, new_window=False, websocket_origin=None, port=0): """ Creates a bokeh app from a HoloViews object or plot. By default simply attaches the plot to bokeh's curdoc and returns the Document, if show option is supplied creates an Application instance and displays it either in a browser window or inline if notebook extension has been loaded. Using the new_window option the app may be displayed in a new browser tab once the notebook extension has been loaded. A websocket origin is required when launching from an existing tornado server (such as the notebook) and it is not on the default port ('localhost:8888'). """ if isinstance(plot, HoloViewsPane): pane = plot else: pane = HoloViewsPane(plot, backend=self_or_cls.backend, renderer=self_or_cls, **self_or_cls._widget_kwargs()) if new_window: return pane._get_server(port, websocket_origin, show=show) else: kwargs = {'notebook_url': websocket_origin} if websocket_origin else {} return, **kwargs)
[docs] @bothmethod def server_doc(self_or_cls, obj, doc=None): """ Get a bokeh Document with the plot attached. May supply an existing doc, otherwise is used to attach the plot to the global document instance. """ if not isinstance(obj, HoloViewsPane): obj = HoloViewsPane(obj, renderer=self_or_cls, backend=self_or_cls.backend, **self_or_cls._widget_kwargs()) return obj.layout.server_doc(doc)
[docs] @classmethod def plotting_class(cls, obj): """ Given an object or Element class, return the suitable plotting class needed to render it with the current renderer. """ if isinstance(obj, AdjointLayout) or obj is AdjointLayout: obj = Layout if isinstance(obj, type): element_type = obj else: element_type = obj.type if isinstance(obj, HoloMap) else type(obj) if element_type is None: raise SkipRendering(f"{type(obj).__name__} was empty, could not determine plotting class.") try: plotclass = Store.registry[cls.backend][element_type] except KeyError: raise SkipRendering(f"No plotting class for {element_type.__name__} found.") from None return plotclass
[docs] @classmethod def plot_options(cls, obj, percent_size): """ Given an object and a percentage size (as supplied by the %output magic) return all the appropriate plot options that would be used to instantiate a plot class for that element. Default plot sizes at the plotting class level should be taken into account. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] @bothmethod def save(self_or_cls, obj, basename, fmt='auto', key=None, info=None, options=None, resources='inline', title=None, **kwargs): """ Save a HoloViews object to file, either using an explicitly supplied format or to the appropriate default. """ if info is None: info = {} if key is None: key = {} if info or key: raise Exception('Renderer does not support saving metadata to file.') if kwargs: param.main.param.warning("Supplying plot, style or norm options " "as keyword arguments to the " "method is deprecated and will error in " "the next minor release.") with StoreOptions.options(obj, options, **kwargs): plot, fmt = self_or_cls._validate(obj, fmt) if isinstance(plot, Viewable): from bokeh.resources import CDN, INLINE, Resources if isinstance(resources, Resources): pass elif resources.lower() == 'cdn': resources = CDN elif resources.lower() == 'inline': resources = INLINE if isinstance(basename, str): if title is None: title = os.path.basename(basename) if fmt in MIME_TYPES: basename = f"{basename}.{fmt}", embed=True, resources=resources, title=title) return rendered = self_or_cls(plot, fmt) if rendered is None: return (data, info) = rendered encoded = self_or_cls.encode(rendered) prefix = self_or_cls._save_prefix(info['file-ext']) if prefix: encoded = prefix + encoded if isinstance(basename, (BytesIO, StringIO)): basename.write(encoded) else: filename =f"{basename}.{info['file-ext']}" with open(filename, 'wb') as f: f.write(encoded)
@bothmethod def _save_prefix(self_or_cls, ext): "Hook to prefix content for instance JS when saving HTML" return
[docs] @bothmethod def get_size(self_or_cls, plot): """ Return the display size associated with a plot before rendering to any particular format. Used to generate appropriate HTML display. Returns a tuple of (width, height) in pixels. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] @classmethod @contextmanager def state(cls): """ Context manager to handle global state for a backend, allowing Plot classes to temporarily override that state. """ yield
[docs] @classmethod def validate(cls, options): """ Validate an options dictionary for the renderer. """ return options
[docs] @classmethod def load_nb(cls, inline=False, reloading=False, enable_mathjax=False): """ Loads any resources required for display of plots in the Jupyter notebook """ if panel_version >= Version('1.0.2'): load_notebook(inline, reloading=reloading, enable_mathjax=enable_mathjax) elif panel_version >= Version('1.0.0'): load_notebook(inline, reloading=reloading) elif reloading: return else: load_notebook(inline) with param.logging_level('ERROR'): try: ip = get_ipython() # noqa except Exception: ip = None if not ip or not hasattr(ip, 'kernel'): return cls.notebook_context = True cls.comm_manager = JupyterCommManager state._comm_manager = JupyterCommManager
@classmethod def _delete_plot(cls, plot_id): """ Deletes registered plots and calls Plot.cleanup """ plot = cls._plots.get(plot_id) if plot is None: return plot.cleanup() del cls._plots[plot_id]